Trabzon is a bustling city in Turkey, known for its lush greenery, active shipping port on the Black Sea, and an international airport. Its famous fish dishes, football team, and Sumela Monastery are also popular among visitors.
During the 4th century, Trabzon remained under the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire's control when the Roman Empire split into two. The Byzantines recognized the city's military importance and made significant repairs and improvements to the city walls during Emperor Justinian's reign in the 6th century. They also established Christianity to gain compliance from the local tribes and constructed the existing aqueducts of Saint Eugenius.
In the 12th century, after the Comnenus family was dethroned in Imperial Byzantium (Istanbul), Alexios Comnenus sought refuge in Georgia. With the assistance and support of Georgians, he declared his kingdom in Trabzon, making it the state capital.
In the 13th century, a group of Seljuk Turks besieged Trabzon and forced the locals to register for taxation. King Alexis Comnenos fortified the citadel by digging ditches around it, and the outer areas became commercial zones known as "The pupil of Asia." The palace of the king and official buildings were situated in the high plains of the inner fortress. Coastal castles, warehouses, and commercial activities from Batum to Kerempe, including Crimea, which was under the control of Genoese and Venetians, were also included in the city's thriving trade. Trabzon was eventually conquered by the Ottomans.