Pergamon Ancient City Pergamon or Pergamum, an ancient city located in Mysia, was known for its wealth and power. Situated 26 kilometers away from the modern Aegean Sea coastline, northwest of Bergama, Izmir, the city center was positioned atop a vast andesite mesa. While the mesa slopes away on all sides, it has three levels, making it possible to climb up from the south side. The Selinus River (modern Bergamaçay) flows on the west side, while the Ketios River (modern Kestelçay) flows on the east. During the Hellenistic period, Pergamon enjoyed a crucial position. After 281 BC, it became the capital of Pergamum, and under the Attalid dynasty, it evolved into one of the primary intellectual centers for Greek culture in present-day Turkey. The city's remains are still visible today, including what some believe is one of the finest examples of architecture: The Pergamon Altar. The Temple of Athena, the steepest theater from the Hellenistic period, library, Great Altar of Pergamon, Dionysus Temple, and agora are some of the captivating attractions of this historic city. The sculpture school located here produced what is considered one of the wonders of ancient times and is home to some of the finest art of the period. Pergamon continued to flourish as a cultural and scientific center during the Roman era, showcasing exceptional examples such as the Sarapeion (Asclepius), Temple of Trajan, theater, amphitheater, and aqueduct. In 2014, the UNESCO World Heritage List added the ancient city of Pergamon, acknowledging its outstanding universal value and cultural significance.