Ani Ancient City Ani is a medieval city situated in Kars Province at the easternmost point of Turkey, which was once the capital of Eastern Armenia and the Bagratid Kingdom until it was captured by the Byzantines. Due to numerous natural disasters and invasions, such as those by the Mongols, Tamerlane, and earthquakes, the city appears today as a town surrounded by imposing stone walls and ruins. The city is located on a plateau in northeast Turkey, offering a breathtaking view of the ravine that forms the natural border with Armenia. Ani's residential, religious, and military structures have created an urban landscape that was built up over centuries by Christian and Muslim dynasties. The city reached its zenith in the 10th and 11th centuries CE when it became the capital of the Armenian Kingdom of Bagratids. Although the city was conquered by the Byzantines, Seljuks, and Georgians in succession, it remained a crossroads for caravans. However, a devastating earthquake occurred in 1319, which marked the beginning of the city's decline. The ancient city of Ani is renowned for its magnificent Armenian architectural monuments, which include several churches, cathedrals, palaces, and fortifications. These structures were among the most technically and artistically advanced in the world during their time. Ancient stone ruins that spread over an extensive area showcase excellent examples of Armenian civilization, including the oldest mosque in Turkey, which dates back to 1072. Ani, a site of immense historical significance, boasts an impressive collection of military, religious, and civil structures that showcase the architectural evolution of the region spanning six centuries, from the 7th to the 13th century AD. The ruins at Ani are some of the most awe-inspiring in the world, featuring notable attractions such as the Lion engravings on the city walls, the Cathedral of Ani, Menucehr Mosque, Seljuk Caravanserai, Tigran Honents Church, and Seljuk Bath. The Cathedral of Ani, built in 1001, is a remarkable example of Armenian architectural prowess and is among the largest structures still standing in the area. The Menucehr Mosque, constructed in 1072 by the Ani Emir Menucehr, is the first Seljuk mosque in Anatolia. The Tigran Honents Church, featuring intriguing frescoes on its walls and well-preserved relief work with animal motifs on the south wall, is another fascinating site. The Historic City of Ani, which received UNESCO World Heritage List recognition in 2016, showcases a plethora of churches, mosques, and caravanserais. The city is fortified by impressive walls that add to its allure.