Located in southeastern Turkey near the Mediterranean Sea and the Gulf of Iskenderun, Osmaniye is a recently established province covering 974 square kilometers. It was formerly a district of Adana until October 1996.
Osmaniye benefits from a mild Mediterranean climate and is surrounded by agricultural fields and forests. Carpentry and woodworking once dominated the economy, but today it serves as a processing center for the region's cotton, wheat, corn, soybeans, and pistachios. Kilim weaving remains an important economic activity in some districts of Osmaniye.
Before the Ottoman Empire, the lands around present-day Osmaniye were inhabited by the Lelegs, and the region was also under the control of the Great Hittite State, Assyrian civilization, and Roman Empire before being conquered by Ottomans.
One of the city's main attractions is the Karatepe-Aslantas Open Air Museum, which is located about 25 km from the city center. It is a neo-Hittite site where visitors can find the remains of King Asitawada's summer residence, as well as tablets with Hittite and Phoenician inscriptions.