Hattusha - Capital City of Hittites Hattusha, the capital of the Hittite civilization, played a crucial role in the development of northern Anatolia and Syria during the 2nd and 1st millennia BC. The city contained palaces, temples, trade quarters, and a necropolis, all of which provide unique insights into this now-lost civilization. The city's impressive architecture is best exemplified by its walled fortifications, including the Lion Gate and Royal Gate, as well as the detailed sculptured friezes of Yazılıkaya's rupestral ensemble. Located 200 km east of Ankara on the sweeping Anatolian plains, the remains of ancient Hattusha, the town of Bogazkale, and the capital of the Hittite empire are framed by a stunning natural backdrop. The site was initially inhabited by a pre-Hittite population at the end of the 3rd millennium, which had also permitted Assyrian traders to settle in other regions. Known as Hattush in epigraphic documents, the city was destroyed by a Hittite sovereign around 1720 BC and faced various challenges from the 18th to 12th centuries. Its ruins and rupestral ensembles bear witness to these vicissitudes. Hattusha was initially discovered in 1834 but was not excavated until 1906 when the oldest peace treaty in the world, between Hattushili III and Pharaoh Ramses II, was found. Archaeologists were then able to identify Hattusha as a Hittite city. Since then, German and Turkish archaeologists have worked together to gain a deeper understanding of the Hittite capital. During the 13th century, the City of Hattusha was protected by a double-wall system, with an outpost located 1.5 km from the Royal Gate to the east. Beyond the city walls to the north is the Osmankayası necropolis, which contains numerous rock-carved tombs. The Yazılıkaya rupestral sanctuary, showcasing Hittite art, can also be found there. The most impressive remains of the city are located to the south and east, including primitive Hittite fortifications with underground passageways. The lower town to the northwest, near the village of Bogazkale, is also worth exploring.The Hittite capital of Hattusha boasts many remarkable archaeological discoveries, among them a vast temple complex dedicated to the gods of storms and the sun. The temple is surrounded by several other buildings, including storehouses, and many tablets have been discovered at its base. Just north of the temple lies a pre-Hittite settlement featuring houses built around a central courtyard. The most remarkable find was the vast temple, dedicated to the god of storms and goddess of the sun. It's surrounded by an array of buildings including storehouses and thousands of tablets have been found at its base. Slightly north is a pre-Hittite settlement with houses built around a central courtyard, which backs up against the temple complex. To the south of the temple complex is the upper city, which has a complex layout. Its most prominent feature is Buyukkale, a structure atop a high peak. The Lion Gates to the west and the Royal Gate to the east are the only well-preserved monuments to the city's original five monumental entrances. These gates, along with other parts of the city's ramparts, offer exceptional insight into the city's architecture, construction techniques, religious rites, rituals, and mythology. In 1986, the Hittite capital city of Hattusha was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in recognition of its remarkable cultural significance.