Rize Castle Situated on a hill southwest of the city center, Rize Castle is a medieval fortress that offers stunning views of the city to its visitors. The castle comprises two buildings, namely the citadel and the lower castle. The citadel is believed to have been erected during the Byzantine reign of Emperor Justinian I (r. 527-565), while the lower castle dates back to the 13th century AD. The castle walls, constructed using ashlar and mortar, are divided into sections that could range from 6-20 meters in height and 2-3 meters (6.6 feet - 9.8 feet) in thickness. The bastions at each corner of the walls are cylindrical in shape, and the towers take on different forms, such as square, rectangular, or circular when viewed from above. Unfortunately, some of the castle's walls are now buried beneath modern reinforced concrete structures and streets. However, in 1989, the southern sections of the city's walls were restored to their former glory.