Erythrai (Ildırı) Ancient City Ildırı, located 20 km northeast of Çeşme, was known as Erythrai in ancient times. The name Erythrai is believed to have originated from a Greek word meaning 'red', possibly because of the red soil found in the area. Another theory suggests that the city was named after Erythro, the son of Cretan Rhadamanthes, who is said to have founded the city. Archaeological evidence shows that there was a settlement in the area since the First Bronze Age, and during the Second Colonization period, the city was ruled by Knopos, a descendant of Kadros, the King of Athens. Later, Vasileids came to power through an election held by the Athenian colonizers. The city became part of the Panionion, a religious and political alliance formed with other nearby towns. During the Ionian uprising against Persian oppression, Erythrai joined other Ionian cities and gained independence in 334 BC when Alexander The Great passed through the area. After Alexander's death, the city underwent several changes in political power and eventually became part of the Pergamon Kingdom. Archaeological excavations began in 1963 under the leadership of Professor Hakkı Gültekin and later Ekrem Akurgal. The excavations uncovered a 3rd century BC theater on the northern slopes of the Acropolis, as well as remnants of a temple dedicated to Athena. The city was found to be surrounded by a 5 km long wall, and various artifacts such as pottery, stone, and clay figures from the 6th and 7th centuries BC were discovered in the Acropolis.